Progressive Bibliography


For further reading materials on the histories and legacies of racist imagery throughout Europe and across the rest of the world, as well as useful study resources that will aid in counter-movements and/or the enhancement of critical media literate and decolonial perspectives, see the following ever-evolving list:

Achebe, C. (1977) An Image of Africa. London: Penguin Books

Adusei-Poku, N. (2010) “White Issues, Italian Vogue’s “all black” issue and the Visual Imaginary” in Düber, A. and Schnicke, F. (eds) Perspektive – Medium – Macht. Zur kulturellen Codierung neuzeitlicher Geschlechterdispositionen. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann

– (2012) “The challenge to conceptualise multiplicity of multiplicities: Post-black art and its intricacies.” Dark Matter 101. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Ahmed, R. (2016) “Typecast as a Terrorist.” The Guardian. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Barr Clingan, N. (2017) “White Innocence and the Dutch Elections.” The Nation. Available: [last updated: 2017].

Bernstein, R. (2011) Racial Innocence: Performing American Childhood from Slavery to Civil Rights. New York & London: New York University Press

Black Girl Long Hair (2016) “BGLH was just dragged for describing lighter-skinned women with loose curls as “black women”.” Black Girl Long Hair blog. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Brinkhorst-Cuff, C. (2017) “Why there’s nothing racist about black-only spaces.” The Guardian. Available: [last updated: 2017].

Carpenter, Z. (2017) “What’s Killing America’s Black Infants?” The Nation. Available: [last updated: 2017]

Chandler, A. (unknown) Stereotyping in the Media. Available: [last updated: unknown]

Chetty, D. (2014) “The Elephant in the Room: Picturebooks, Philosophy for Children and Racism.” Childhood and Philosophy Vol. 10/19, pages: 11-31.

– (2013) “”You can’t do that! Stories have to be about White people!”” Media Diversified. Available: [last updated 2014]

Cohen, M. M. (2014) “The scariest thing about Halloween is seeing all the douchebags who think racial masquerade is okay.” The Independent Voices. Available:–douchebags-who-think-racial-masquerade-is-okay-9830695.html [last updated 2014]

Derricks, C. (2005) Buy Golly: The History of Black Collectables. London: New Cavendish Books

Fanon, F. (1967) Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press

Frank, C. (2014) “Steve McQueen and the Dutch.” Africa is a Country. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Gebrial, D. (2017) “Decolonising Desire: The Politics of Love”. Verso Blog. Available: [last updated: 2017]

Gilroy, P. (2007) Black Britain: A Photographic History. London: Saqi Books

– (2002, 2nd edition) There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack. London & New York: Routledge

Gordon, P. and Rosenburg, D. (1989) Daily Racism: The Press and Black People in Britain. London: The Runnymede Trust

Hall, C. (2016) ‘The racist ideas of slave owners are still with us today’ The Guardian Online. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Hall, S., Evans, J. and Nixon, S. (2013, 2nd edition) Representation. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC: Sage Publications

Harris-Perry, M. (2016) ‘What do you see when you look at this cover?’ Elle website. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Holloway, L. (2014) “Prime Minister Cameron Goes a-Niggering.” Lester Holloway. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Ifekwunigewe, J. (2010) “Black Folk Here and There” in Olaniyan, T. and Sweet, J. H. (eds) The African Diaspora and the Disciplines. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press

Jain, Rohit. (2015) “Bollywood, Chicken Curry – and IT: The Public Spectacle of the Indian Exotic and Post-Colonial Anxieties in Switzerland” in Fischer-Tiné, H. and Purtschert, P. (eds) Swiss Colonial Encounters and Postcolonial Assemblages. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Jasper, L. (2011) “Why Golliwog wars are important.” Operation Black Vote: The Home of Black Politics. Available: [last updated: 2011]

Katjavivi, P. J. (2016) “An Apology is Not Enough: Germany, Genocide and the Limits of Reparations for Namibia.” OkayAfrica. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Lockward, A. (2013) “Black Europe Body Politics: Toward an Afropean Decolonial Aesthetics.” Social Text. Available: [last updated: 2013]

Michel, N. and Honegger, M. (2010) “Thinking Whiteness in French and Swiss Cyberspaces.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society Vol. 14/4, pages: 423-449

Mirza, H. S. (1997) Black British Feminism: a Reader. London & New York: Routledge

Nasta, S. (2013) Asian Britain: A Photographic History. London: Saqi Books

Norton, Q. (2014) “The White Problem.” Medium: Everyone’s Stories and Ideas” Available: [last updated: 2014]

Nwabuzo. O. (2015) Afrophobia in Europe: ENAR Shadow Report 2014-2015. Brussels: ENAR

Okolosie, L. (2014) “Cameron and the morris dancers: a sign of our nationalistic mood.” The Guardian Online. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Olusoga, D. (2016) “The reality of being black in today’s Britain”. The Guardian. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Onyeka (2013) Blackamoors: Africans in Tudor England, Their Presence, Status and Origin. London: Narrative Eye Publishers Ltd. REVIEW

Padgett, K. (date unknown) “Blackface!” Racial and Racist Stereotypes in the Media. Available: [last updated: unknown]

Pallua, U. (2009) “Discursive Strategies in Fixing Images of Power: The Enslaved ‘Other’ in Miller’s Art and Nature and Kotzebue’s ‘The Negro Slaves’” in Pallua, U., Knapp, A. and Exenberger, A. (eds) (Re)Figuring Human Enslavement: Images of Power, Violence and Resistance. Innsbruck: Innsbruck University Press

Parnell-Berry, B. (2012) “Why AntiGolliwog?” Rants and Raves. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Parnell-Berry, B. and Völke, K. (2012) “Like the Golliwog, Zwarte Piet is a racist relic, so why is it a part of the Dutch Christmas?” The Independent Voices. Available: [last updated: 2013]

Pettit, R. B. (2001) “Micky Mouse Monopoloy: Disney, Childhood and Corporate Power.” Media Education Foundation Study Guide. Available: [last updated: 2001]

Pickering, M. (2008) Blackface Minstrelsy in Britain. Aldershot & Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Ltd

Pilgrim, D. (2000) “The Golliwog Caricature.” Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Available: [last updated: 2012]

Pool, H. (2006) “Return to the Dark Ages.” The Guardian Online. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Ramamurthy, A. (2003) Imperial Persuaders: Images of Africa and Asia in British Advertising. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press

Sands-O’Connor, K. (2007) Soon Come Home to this Island: West Indians in British Children’s Literature. New York & London: Routledge

Schor, P. (2013) “A Reasonable Alternative to Zwarte Piet.” Processed Life. Available: [last updated 2013]

Shoneye, T. (2016) “16 Stunning Pictures of Black British People Living Their Best Lives”. BuzzFeed UK. Available: [last updated: 2016]

Shukla, N. (ed; 2016) The Good ImmigrantLondon: Unbound

Stonington, J. (2014) “Blackface is Big in Germany: Despite a growing backlash against is, blackface is still popular in Germany, where people insist they aren’t racist.”   Vocativ. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Thompson, V. E. (2011) “‘The master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house’. Frantz Fanon on Whiteness in Hegemonic Social Philosophy” in Falkof, N. and Cashman-Brown, O. (eds) On Whiteness. Inter-Disciplinary Press  

Tipton-Martin, T. (2015) The Jemima Code: Two Hundred Years of African American Cookbooks. Austin: University of Texas Press 

Turner, P. A. (1994) Ceramic Uncles and Celluloid Mammies: Black Images and Their Influence on Culture. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press

Utt, J. (2015) “10 Ways well-meaning white teachers bring racism into our schools”. Everyday Feminism. Available: [last updated: 2015]

Vale, K. (2016) “The 6-Step Guide to Raising Anti-Racist White Kids as a White Parent”. Resist. Available: [last updated: 2017]

Vaughan, V. M. (2005) Performing Blackness on English Stages, 1500-1800. Cambridge, Melbourne, Singapore: Cambridge University Press

Wade, L. (2013) “Racist Antics at Colleges and High Schools (Trigger Warning).” The Society Pages. Available: [last updated: 2014]

Williams, A. (2017) “The Enduring Legacy of Disney’s Black Millennial Classic ‘A Goofy Movie'”. Noisey. Available: [last updated: 2017]


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