Sinterklaas Brand & Product Study 2017

We are happy to announce the publication of our Sinterklaas Brand & Product Study 2017!

The second edition of this report continues to trace the evolutions of the debates around the character of Zwarte Piet as part of the Dutch festival Sinterklaas, by monitoring the protests taking place against the character, as well as its usage by brands and stores to promote certain products. Picking up from last year’s study, the 2017 report compares its findings with that of the previous report in order to demonstrate if and where adjustments have been made in the characterisation and promotion of the Zwarte Piet figure. The results are based on data  and observations collected by the ERIF team, between October and December of the 2016 Sinterklaas season in the Netherlands.

Download and read the full report here.

Performative intervention A Sint You Want by G. Holwerda and Thomas Kortvelyessy at the Returning the Gaze II: Stories of Resistance conference 2016. Photo credits go to Studio Othieno.

Augustown by Kei Miller (2016) – Book Review

by Rae Parnell

augustown

Reading Augustown by Jamaican writer Kei Miller can at times be sensory decadence. This is not an action-packed novel, but is instead a profession of love and dedication to the history and legacy of a real town in Jamaica ‘coincidentally’ called “August Town.” Miller unfolds complex racial, generational, and cultural dynamics of his Augustown, and anchors his book with one simple question: why is young child Kaia running home from school crying, and who has cut off his dreadlocks?

This question brings forward the many characters that make up Augustown. Kaia’s immediate family is rooted by his great aunt Ma Taffy, who’s blindness has made her aware that something, although she does not understand what, is coming to the town. Although this is a tired stereotype, it is forgiven as Ma Taffy’s character is given a complexity and honestly that is rarely seen with older characters. Kaia also has his mother Gina, a brilliant young woman who is still coming to terms with her own past. Even though she is rarely seen in the beginning, her narrative arrives center stage as she grapples with issues of education, love, and community responsibility.

The rest of Augustown unfolds around this core family, each one offering central issues. The weasel-like schoolteacher Mr. Saint James brings forward questions of colorism, self hatred, and desire. The principal of Kaia’s school Mrs. G. moves issues of classism within Jamaica. And the larger character of “Babylon” (how the characters refer to the police that harass the citizens of Augustown), is a vessel for conversations around surveillance, racism, and resistance.

Miller also places these lives within the many generations that have lived in Augustown. When Ma Taffy wants to distract a mournful, dread-free Kaia, she tells the story of the grandfather of Rastafariani Alexander Bedward, who flew into the sky when she was just a little girl. And later, when Gina seeks justice for cultural violence inflicted on Kaia, the imagery of Bedward is called upon as she seems to carry the weight and pain of her community and history. In these moments, Miller seems to wonder if anyone can really move outside of their history.

The intricacies of Augustown are brought together with Kei Miller’s phenomenal writing style. Each chapter has poetic meditation on a situation or place. In the beginning of the book, the narrator describes Augustown: “notice the hills, how one of them carries on its face a scar – a section where bulldozers and tractors have sunk their rusty talons into its cheeks, scraped away the bush and the trees and left behind a white crater scar.” (p. 3). Miller consistently incorporates a descriptive style that masters the combining of poetry and narrative. And in a book that has so many different narratives, this becomes the glue that keeps it together.

While the writing style does help maintain the many stories in the book, the downside of Augustown is the many stories. If you decide to read Augustown (and you should!), I would suggest reading it over a few days. Because of the many narratives, it becomes difficult to keep up with the time period, who’s connected to who, and what has happened in the past. However, if read in a short period of time, the book becomes a living map, tracing a community that continues to resist and support each other.

There is a paragraph nestled in the middle of the book that captures the essence of Augustown. Miller says:

The great philosophical question goes: if a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear, does it make a sound? But this is a troubling question, exalting one kind of being above all others. What then of the ears of the snakes, or wood frogs, or mice, or bugs? Do they not count? What then of the grass, of stone, of earth? Does their witness not matter? If a man flies in Jamaica, and only the poor will admit to seeing it, has he flown? (p. 144).

Who then will bares witness to the stories of Augustown? Who believes their pain is real, their community is strong, and their sense of justice is true? With questions like these, Miller’s work is an invitation for all of us to hear the history and lives of Augustown.

Racist normalcies when crossing borders in Europe

by Praveen Sewgobind, University of Potsdam

In October/November 2016, I, a PhD researcher at Potsdam University, was travelling to two conferences in Toronto and Innsbruck to present papers. Both conferences offered participants a possibility to outline critical perspectives on dominant discourses, hegemonic structures, and provide a platform to engage in discussion and forge alliances.

The urgent need to come to terms with a world in which the racist gaze and powerful racialized perceptions and power structures are thriving, came to the fore as I was on my to the conference in Toronto, and then, again, as I went home from the conference in Innsbruck.

Welcome to Iceland

On 26 October, I was travelling from Schiphol Amsterdam Airport to Kevlavik International Airport in Iceland, on my way to Toronto. I was planning to attend and present a paper at a conference titled Truth, Lies, and Manufacturing Memory. My paper – an analysis of the contemporary Black Pete polarisation in the Netherlands – addresses issues of racist imagery, white power structures, and coloniality.

During the stop-over in Iceland, I am somewhat surprised that we, the passengers on our way to Toronto, have to pass Icelandic security. We are hardly in Iceland proper, as we are merely going from one gate to another in the airport. I have no plans to visit Iceland, but have to present my passport in-between the two gates.

The Icelandic policeman looks at my passport, examines it thoroughly and at length, and asks whether I could show another ID document. “No, this is my passport”, I reply. The situation seems somewhat Kafkaesque: this is the purpose of an ID-check, right? One shows ID, which should be a proof of a true and existing identity, in theory at least. I am promptly asked to stand aside and am then asked to follow another police officer to a separate room in the airport’s main building, as the other passengers of the WOW-air flight (about 100, I estimate) wait in the queues. All of the passengers who were checked before me (all white) have passed without any problem. I am told to wait in a room, where toys for children are stacked in one corner, and a baby crib is placed in another corner. I assume people under suspicion are taken here, asked to leave their child in the room, and are then taken along to be questioned, and/or (strip)-searched.

Memories of Israeli interrogations at Ben Gurion airport start to pop up, humiliating experiences, which took several hours. But my flight would be departing in 20 minutes… What to do? How to behave? I asked myself. I started to feel very uncomfortable…and all kinds of scenarios now rushed through my mind…Shall I just tell them they are racist, or ask them politely? Risk that they will keep me even longer, and miss my flight to Toronto? A police officer enters the room, and just stands there…looking at me, trying to look tough. He does not say a word, and then leaves again. After a few more minutes, the other police officer returns, and starts to ask questions. Where am I going? I tell her that that is printed on my boarding pass, which she holds in her hands. To speed up things, I tell her that I will be in Toronto for six days. What will I do there? I tell her I am a PhD researcher and that I will attend an academic conference. She responds with some amazement in her voice. “Ah…you are a researcher….”. “Yes”, I answer. I am a researcher at Potsdam University in Germany. She hands me my passport and boarding pass, thanks me for my patience and orders me to walk back to the queue.

While we are doing that, I ask her why I was singled out. “I do not know, sir”, she replies. Then she asks where I was born. I tell her I was born in Suriname. No sign of recognition, apparently, but another question: “But you are Dutch now?” I think what a way to respond to this ridiculous question. They have just scanned my passport many times, checked my persona, looked into all kinds of databases, and apparently have not found anything on me, except for a confirmation that, indeed, I am recognised as a Dutch national. “Yes, I am a Dutch citizen”, I reply. It now occurs to me that they probably did not believe the passport was real, that there must be something wrong. This non-white person showing a Dutch passport – that is asking for trouble and is inherently suspicious, obviously.

I wonder how many people of colour have to go through the same humiliating ordeal. This is a route to Canada and the US, and they have seen persons of colour before, surely. But I have to rush to my plane, which I manage just in time, and wonder what to do…..I could and perhaps should write to Icelandic human rights and anti-racist activists, politicians even, to publish this story. Because I know I have not been the first person who had to undergo this special treatment, to be otherised, singled out, treated as a potential criminal just because of the colour of your skin, and because a name  – non-European or exotic? – does not correspond with their perception of a Dutchness/Europeanness! I am glad – very glad – that a few hours later, I show my passport to a Canadian border official. She is very friendly (as I wonder from which region of South Asia her ancestors are from, which gives me an odd and distant sense of belonging, although she wears a uniform…) and dutifully asks what the purpose of my stay will be. I tell her that I will give a presentation at an academic conference in Toronto. She smiles even more radiantly, hands me back my passport, and wishes me a good time in Canada.

Welcome to Germany

I am energised by the two conferences, by having had the privilege to have wonderful conversations with like-minded people. I am tired, but very satisfied. On several occasions during the conference at Innsbruck University, I talked to people about the rise of racist discourses in many parts of the world. Several presentations and workshops actually addressed narratives of, and resistance against the racist gaze, and ways to counter that. During the evening of the first day, we went to a local theatre to see a performance about racial profiling, Weisser Peter by Mohamed Wa Balie. In this wonderful piece, the public attending was effectively engaged in several acts, inspired by contemporary practices and debates about racial profiling. It was indeed, as announced, ‘a memorable evening of theatre about invisible racism and unearned white privilege.’

And so, the following event, experienced as I was returning home, goes beyond cynicism and smacked me right back into the real-life realities that we had just been discussing.

I am sitting in the train from Innsbruck to Munich, and despite a long history of being harassed by state officials in green uniforms – most notably near the border town of Bad Bentheim at the Dutch-German border – I am not thinking about these experiences. I want to go home, and think productively think about issues of coloniality, racism and whiteness. My thoughts cover practices, theory, resistance, and how to combine those, how to counter narratives, instigating critical thought and collective action.

As we cross the Austrian-German border, I see three German police officers slowly moving through the aisle in the train carriage. They look, they probe…they search for….abnormalities.

What do they think when they see me? Which associations are triggered when the police officers walk past me, see the colour of my skin, and then decidedly stop? Dark skin, brown, black….non-white…suspect, other, criminal, terrorist, illegal migrant….not part of the framework, to be checked, to be asked for ID. Yes, definitely to be asked for ID.

Deutsche Bahn, carriage number 22, of ICE 1506 from Innsbruck to Berlin. About twenty other people are sitting in the train compartment, all white. Obviously, I stand out, I deviate, I “light up” in the sea of whiteness. That realisation becomes inscribed, it seems, as such moments materialise, when the invisible hand that racialises me in that sea of whiteness chokes me, squeezes my throat, in that eerie event of exclusion, of being singled out.

I feel…the eyes of people trying not to look at me, knowing full well that they have seen that the police stop only where they see a non-white body…and they pretend to continue to do their business, continue to read their magazines, look outside of the window….while knowing that white German police officers are engaging in an act of public “racial profiling.” That phrase is a euphemism: the process it refers to starts with the act of implementing a so-called racial profile by a system of authority, but what it does, what it results in, is the forceful othering, an act of racial violence perpetrated against an individual, which does not stand on its own, but is merely one instance in the power structure of racism. The profiling triggers the event of the experience of a racial assault, which is infused by and is attached to all previous racist encounters that boil upwards from a life ridden with such events. This series of racial subjugation, alienation, oppression, attaches to the body of the person of colour, to my body, in a dynamic of racial strangling. The embodied serial burden of having been through, of having experienced the multiple and interconnected memories of racial subordination.

A tension is building in the train. They, three police officers stand in front of me, in a half-circle, asserting themselves, trying to make sure I somehow feel subordinated by their presence. I do not know what to think, I have a hard time to act….but I firmly ask them, before I hand over my passport, if they check every person on the train. “No, not every person”, the police officer replies. “No, apparently not”, I reply. “I get checked every time I pass a border, it seems”, I inform them. “And tell me”, I continue, “this has nothing to do with racism??” “No…indeed”, he answers.

One of the police officers is now trying to look very stern and attain a position of authority. He should contact his colleague in Iceland, they could go and be all tough and try to improve their composure. Idiot, I think. He does not impress me in any way. I look him in the eyes, unimpressed, with far greater vehemence and an ice-cold anger. Do not play this fucking game with me, I thought. You have no idea who I am, what I have done, in which situations I have had to maintain my stature against those who produce a racist gaze or utter racist remarks. You are just a German police puppet, you do not impress me in any way, I say to myself. I laugh at the way that you apparently need your gun, your baton, your canister with pepper spray to construct your position of power. My pride, my determination to fight racism and all forms of oppression supersede your constructed petty masculinity, your pathetic symbols, your fucking nothingness. You are just an insubstantial boy performing your wicked racist practices, dressed up as a figure of power. I am deconstructing your power with the knowledge that you cannot subdue me. My motivation to fight racism by any means necessary will vaporize your wicked illusions of superiority.

I think about how decades ago, Jews were taken to the death camps by German trains, how Gandhi was thrown off a train in South Africa, but also…how resistance against colonialism, racism and fascism was organised. That generates strength….and emboldens me, providing me with resilience, a notion that that is possible, sometimes against all odds, against the grain.

…..

Welcome back to Germany, I think, as they hand me back my passport. There is lot to be done!

 

When we revolt it’s not for a particular culture. We revolt simply because, for many reasons, we can no longer breathe” 

― Frantz Fanon

Akata Witch by Nnedi Okorafor (2011) – a review

by Rae Parnell

akatawitchWhat happens when four children are put to the task of saving the world? Nnedi Okorafor explores this story and more in her book Akata Witch. The author breathes new life into this well known plot by placing the story in Nigeria, and introducing the readers to a society of West Africans with magical abilities called “Leopards.” Okorafor brings forward complex understandings of identity and personhood as we watch 12 year-old Sunny Nwazue learn about her Leopard abilities and the world around her.

Set within the backdrop of child murders by a mysterious character named Black Hat Otokoto, Sunny, along with friends Orlu, Sasha, and Chichi, learn about their abilities and friendship through a strict and humorous mentor, Anatov. We watch them build trust among each other through a range of silly and deadly magical lessons. One enjoyable aspect of the book is simply the children’s group dynamic as bickering 12 to 14 year olds placed in quite adult situations. As one character in the book observes, “they fight plenty…[and] they make up just as much.” The audience is fondly reminded of their own childhood, and I often found myself deep in nostalgia for my adolescent friendships.

Perhaps one of the strongest elements of Okorafor’s book is her exploration of dualism, best captured by the main character Sunny. Throughout the book, we watch as she is taunted by her classmates for being a Nigerian with albinism. We learn that she has spent her first nine years born and raised in the United States, returning to Nigeria three years before the book begins. This causes her African identity to be called into question, pointing to the title of the book: akata (usually referring to Black Americans or foreign born Blacks). And later, when Sunny learns about the Leopard society that she belongs to, we watch her balance two lives: one with her non magical family, and the other, with her new friends and mentors as “Leopards.”

This is not the only space that dualism is explored. Okorafor weaves in this theme equally powerfully through the central friendship group of the book. The first friend that Sunny makes, and the one that is most like her, is Orlu. Orlu is reserved, level-headed, and seems to be mature well beyond his years. Meanwhile, where Orlu can be found carefully planning his next steps, Sunny’s friend Chichi instead impulsively dives into whatever she does. Egotistical, silly, and mysteriously ageless, her energy is matched by the last individual in the friend group: Sasha. Sasha is a Black American from Chicago sent to Nigeria by his parents who understand him to be too questioning of authority to be safe in the US. We watch the four friends learn to trust each other’s strengths, as these strong differences are actually what balances the group.

Sunny’s friendship with the three other children continues to grow as she learns more about the society of Leopards that she now belongs to. In the beginning of the book, we see her constantly confronted with the belief that she is an outcast; in her family, in her school, and within the many facets of her Black community. However, we are able watch her slowly become enveloped into a support group of friends, mentors, and community members who celebrate her in more ways than she could have ever imagined.

These are just a few of the incredible ideas and stories that Okorafor places in her book. Akata Witch invites the reader into a story of adventure, trust, wonder, and growth. Although this book is meant for children (and how I wish I was able to read this as a child), individuals of all ages can find themselves reflected in this grappling story of multiple and sometimes contradictory identities. As so, many people of color in Europe are both a part of and alienated from the countries they reside in, much comfort can be found in the story of Sunny and the adventures she embarks upon. When we watch her navigate a complicated world of identity, we can’t help but cheer her (and perhaps ourselves) on as she embraces the type of self love that can only be revealed through the experience of finally finding a community and a home.

 

Resources for discussing racism with kids

Illustration from Amazing Grace (1990) by Mary Hoffman.

Discussing racism and inequality can be a distressing moment between parents, care-givers or teachers and the children they love. Thankfully, there are a number of helpful materials and resources that can help you to explain discrimination at the same time as giving kids a sense of self-worth and confidence to stand up to themselves. Below are a few suggestions of books for children as well as advice materials for adults!

Picture books for young children:

Picture Books (2+)
• I love my hair – Natasha Anastasia
• Dancing in the wings – Debbie Allen

Picture Books (3+)
• Chocolate Me – Taye Diggs
• The Colors of Us – Karen Katz
• All the colors we are: The story of how we got our skin color – Katie Kissinger
• The skin you live in – Michael Tyler

Picture Books (4+)
• Amazing Grace – Mary Hoffman
• Skin Again – bell hooks
• The Other side – Jacqueline Woodson

Picture Books (5+)
• Hope – Isabell Monk
• Muskrat will be swimming – Cheryl Savageau

Picture Books (6+)
• The Soccer Fence: A Story of Friendship, Hope and Apartheid in South Africa – Phil Bidner
• Grandpa, is everything black bad? – Sandy Lynne Holman
• Let’s talk about race – Julius Lester
• Goin’ someplace special – Patricia C. McKissack
• Busing Brewster – Richard Michelson
• Mr. Lincoln’s Way – Patricia Polacco
• Desmond and the very mean word – Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Douglas Carlton Abrams

More Picture Books!
• Shades of Black: A celebration of our children – Sandra L. Pinkney
• The Sneetches and other stories – Dr. Seuss
• Yoko – Rosemary Wells
• White Water – Michael S. Bandy and Eric Stein
• Buddha at Bedtime – Dharmachari Nagaraja
• If a bus could talk – Faith Ringgold
• The people could fly: American Black Folktales – Virginia Hamilton
• Sunne’s Gift: How she overcame bullying to reclaim God’s gift – Ama Karikari Yawson
• Roll of thunder hear my cry – Mildred Taylor
• Let the circle be unbroken – Mildred Taylor
• Maggie Sinclair will you please fix your hair?! – Hilary Grant Dixon
• We Got Issues! A Young Woman’s Guide to a Bold, Courageous and Empowered Life – Edited by Rha Goddess and JLove Calderon
• The fat black woman’s poems – Grace Nichols
• The People Shall Continue – Simon Ortiz
• Muskrat Will Be Swimming – Cheryl Savageau
• First Americans – series of books by Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve
• Indian Shoes – Cynthia Leitich Smith

Resources for adults:

– 50 Best culturally diverse children’s books (web article)
– Book list by Creative with Kids (website)
– Book list by Friends School of Portland (digital document)
– Combating Racial Discrimination by Ena Appelt and Monika Jarosch (book)
– Dutch Racism by Philomena Essed and Isabel Hoving (book)
– Emancipatie en diversiteit in kinderboeken by Spinzi (website)
– Institute of Race Relations News (website)
– Learning Resource Centre by ERIF (website)
– Media Diversified (website)
– Resources for teachers by Indian Country Today Media Network (website)
– Stereotypen in kinderboeken by Buku Books (website)
– We are all the same inside (website)
– We Need Diverse Books (website)

 

Awesome summer reads for teens!

anita and me aya de yopougon purple hibiscus

Hoping to find some books to keep your teen occupied this summer? Or are you a teacher looking for something new for your curriculum that offers a non-white perspective? See our list below, as previously featured in our Parent Teacher Resource Pack!

  • Vuurwerk in m’n Hoofd – Roland Colastica (Dutch)
  • Anita and Me – Meera Syal
  • The Long Song – Andrea Levy
  • Tropical fish – Doreen Baingana
  • The Other Side of Truth – Beverley Naidoo
  • Purple Hibiscus – Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
  • Weep Not Child – Ngûgî Wa Thiong’o
  • Song of Solomon – Toni Morrison
  • Half of a Yellow Sun – Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
  • Wide Sargaso Sea – Jean Rys
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God – Zora Neale Hurston
  • The Color Purple – Alice Walker
  • Annie John – Jamaica Kincaid
  • Possessing the Secret of Joy – Alice Walker
  • Aya de Yopougon – Marguerite Abouet and drawn by Clément Oubrerie
  • As a Black Woman – Maud Sulter
  • The Kane Chronicles – Rick Riordan
  • On Beauty – Zadie Smith
  • Things Fall Apart – Chinua Achebe
  • Small Island – Andrea Levy

ALSO: Are your kids and/or students into comic books? If so, check out this awesome article from OkayAfrica on new Egyptian mythological comic series The PackThe author of the series, Paul Louise-Julie, will also released graphic novel Yohance this year. Another great author of comics for teens with diverse characters is Dani Dixon at Tumble Creek. You can check out her work here.

thepack2

Must read articles for parents and teachers

"Show me ACCEPTANCE!" workshop

“Show me ACCEPTANCE!” workshop

In November, ERIF hosted its first Parent Teacher symposium in Amsterdam. The interactive day (in collaboration with the Teatro Munganga, the creators of Bino & Fino, actress and educator Anni Domingo as well as activist and educator G. Holwerda) was a great success and we look forward to organising and hosting a similar event in the not too distant future. To compliment the day, we prepared an exclusive resource pack especially for attendees, but we would like everyone to be able to benefit from these valuables tools and information points. Therefore, over the coming weeks and months we will post selected materials from each of the chapters  that feature in the pack. We will also be mindful to add new and useful tools to ensure the material being posted isn’t dated or irrelevant.

If you have suggestions for additional resources, feel free to share! For now, below you can find a list we put together for the pack, of insightful and informative articles dealing with racist imagery that is targeted at children. These articles offer some advice that could be useful for both parents and teachers. Look out for more resources coming soon!

ERIF Sinterklaas Brand & Product Study: Locating Zwarte Piet

In October 2015, the ERIF team began fieldwork for a research project on the Sinterklaas festival in the Netherlands. We wanted to assess how prevalent the character of Zwarte Piet is in Dutch advertising leading up to the popular winter festival and by doing so, set benchmark for future comparison as the celebration undergoes continued critique and subsequent re-shaping.

Unsurprisingly, Zwarte Piet did remain at the forefront of Sinterklaas imagery in 2015, however we did observe some interesting changes and developments that we will look out for again when we repeat the study later this year.

You can download the full report here.

Zwarte Piet postcard ca. 1950.

Zwarte Piet postcard ca. 1950.

 

Diverse Books & Comics

Looking for more diverse literature options for older kids in the form of comic books and novels? You should check out work by Dani Dixon for Tumble Creek Press. Via Dani’s website you can sample her work as well as order books. There are also blogs, videos and information about upcoming events and activities available via the website. If you’re a fan and have any of Dani’s work already, let us know what you thought in the comments below.

 

Progressive Bibliography

ERIF Logo

For further reading materials on the histories and legacies of racist imagery throughout Europe and across the rest of the world, as well as useful study resources that will aid in counter-movements and/or the enhancement of critical media literate and decolonial perspectives, see the following ever-evolving list:

Achebe, C. (1977) An Image of Africa. London: Penguin Books

Adusei-Poku, N. (2010) “White Issues, Italian Vogue’s “all black” issue and the Visual Imaginary” in Düber, A. and Schnicke, F. (eds) Perspektive – Medium – Macht. Zur kulturellen Codierung neuzeitlicher Geschlechterdispositionen. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann

– (2012) “The challenge to conceptualise multiplicity of multiplicities: Post-black art and its intricacies.” Dark Matter 101. Available: http://web.archive.org/web/20131014000127/http://www.darkmatter101.org/site/2012/11/29/the-multiplicity-of-multiplicities-%E2%80%93-post-black-art-and-its-intricacies/ [last updated: 2014]

Ahmed, R. (2016) “Typecast as a Terrorist.” The Guardian. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/15/riz-ahmed-typecast-as-a-terrorist [last updated: 2016]

Bernstein, R. (2011) Racial Innocence: Performing American Childhood from Slavery to Civil Rights. New York & London: New York University Press

Black Girl Long Hair (2016) “BGLH was just dragged for describing lighter-skinned women with loose curls as “black women”.” Black Girl Long Hair blog. Available: http://blackgirllonghair.com/2016/10/bglh-was-just-dragged-for-describing-lighter-skinned-women-with-loose-curls-as-black/ [last updated: 2016]

Carpenter, Z. (2017) “What’s Killing America’s Black Infants?” The Nation. Available: https://www.thenation.com/article/whats-killing-americas-black-infants/ [last updated: 2017]

Chandler, A. (unknown) Stereotyping in the Media. Available: http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Spring02/chandler/stereotypehome.htm [last updated: unknown]

Chetty, D. (2014) “The Elephant in the Room: Picturebooks, Philosophy for Children and Racism.” Childhood and Philosophy Vol. 10/19, pages: 11-31.

– (2013) “”You can’t do that! Stories have to be about White people!”” Media Diversified. Available: http://mediadiversified.org/2013/12/07/you-cant-do-that-stories-have-to-be-about-white-people/ [last updated 2014]

Cohen, M. M. (2014) “The scariest thing about Halloween is seeing all the douchebags who think racial masquerade is okay.” The Independent Voices. Available: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/the-scariest-thing-about-halloween-is-seeing-all-the–douchebags-who-think-racial-masquerade-is-okay-9830695.html [last updated 2014]

Derricks, C. (2005) Buy Golly: The History of Black Collectables. London: New Cavendish Books

Fanon, F. (1967) Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press

Frank, C. (2014) “Steve McQueen and the Dutch.” Africa is a Country. Available: http://africasacountry.com/steve-mcqueen-and-the-dutch/ [last updated: 2014]

Gebrial, D. (2017) “Decolonising Desire: The Politics of Love”. Verso Blog. Available: http://www.versobooks.com/blogs/3094-decolonising-desire-the-politics-of-love?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=UK+UTM+-+Decolonising+Desire%3A+The+Politics+of+Love [last updated: 2017]

Gilroy, P. (2007) Black Britain: A Photographic History. London: Saqi Books

– (2002, 2nd edition) There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack. London & New York: Routledge

Gordon, P. and Rosenburg, D. (1989) Daily Racism: The Press and Black People in Britain. London: The Runnymede Trust

Hall, C. (2016) ‘The racist ideas of slave owners are still with us today’ The Guardian Online. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/sep/26/racist-ideas-slavery-slave-owners-hate-crime-brexit-vote?CMP=share_btn_link [last updated: 2016]

Hall, S., Evans, J. and Nixon, S. (2013, 2nd edition) Representation. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC: Sage Publications

Harris-Perry, M. (2016) ‘What do you see when you look at this cover?’ Elle website. Available: http://www.elle.com/culture/news/a37590/elle-cover-response-mellissa-harris-perry/ [last updated: 2016]

Holloway, L. (2014) “Prime Minister Cameron Goes a-Niggering.” Lester Holloway. Available: http://lesterholloway.com/2014/10/16/prime-minister-cameron-goes-a-niggering/ [last updated: 2014]

Ifekwunigewe, J. (2010) “Black Folk Here and There” in Olaniyan, T. and Sweet, J. H. (eds) The African Diaspora and the Disciplines. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press

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